Eye Cancer Retinoblastoma
Frequency:- Retinoblastoma Occurs In 80% Of The Children Before 3 Years Of Age And Its Diagnosis In Children Over 6 Years Of Age Is Extremely Uncommon.
Screening & Diagnosis Of Retinoblastoma:-
Screening for retinoblastoma happens for newborns in the first three months, and it includes:
The red reflex: Looking for a reddish-orange reflection from the eye’s retina from around 30 cm / 1 foot.
The corneal light reflex / Hirschberg test: Looking for symmetrical reflection of light beam in the same spot on each eye.
Eye examination: Looking for structural abnormalities
Signs And Symptoms Of Eye Cancer Retinoblastoma:-
1. Abnormal appearance of the pupil
2. Leukoria- amanrotic cats eye reflex
3. Deterioration of vision red and irritated eye with Glaucoma
4. Children develop squint as a cross eyed or a wall eye.
Treatment Of Eye Cancer Retinoblastoma:-
The main concern of RB treatment is to safeguard the life of the child and minimize complications rather than preserving the vision.
Most patients with unilateral disease present with advanced intraocular disease therefore usually undergo enanculation which results in the cure rate of 95% In bilalateral RB enanculation is usually reserved for eyes that have failed all known effective therapies or without useful vision.
Brachytherapy involves the placement of radioactive implant (plaque) usually on the selera adjacent to the base of tumor. It is used as a primary treatment.
Involves the application of heat in the affected area, generally in the form of infrared radiation. It is used for small tumors.
It damages the vascular endothelium with secondary thrombosis by quickly freezing it.
Systematic chemotherapy has become forefront of treatment in the past decade in search of globe preserving measures and to avoid the adverse effect of EBRT(External beam radiation therapy).