What to Know About Lymphoma

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What to Know About Lymphoma

What to Know About Lymphoma

LYMPHOMA is a type of cancer of the LYMPHOID CELLS. There are some constitutional symptoms, deep-seated masses and full blood count abnormalities, like anemia. LYMPHOMA can enter into any organ of the body and particularly the lymphoid tissue or bone marrow or both. Lymphoma starts in infection-fighting lymphocytes.

LYMPHOMA is a type of blood cancer, and it starts in the white blood cells called LYMPHOCYTES when these cells grow out of control. They are a part of the immune system fighting infections.

 There are Two Main Types of LYMPHOMA:

NON-HODGKIN:  Most of the people with lymphoma have this type.

HODGKIN

Both these types affect a different kind of lymphocyte, and each one grows differently at a different rate, and respond differently to a treatment.

Lymphoma is the fifth common cancer. It occurs at any age, even in children. It is a treatable disease, and a person can live for many years after diagnosed with lymphoma. If a person has lymphoma, the lymphocytes divide abnormally in the body and grow in the lymph nodes in the arms pits, neck or groin.

Symptoms of Lymphoma:

There are 60 different types of lymphomas, divided into Hodgkin Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

The actual symptom depends on the type of lymphoma and its location in the body.

It can be a mild illness of infection or a serious one.

Swollen lymph nodes: Painless lump in the neck, groin or armpit.

Fatigue: Tiredness does not go away even after rest or sleep.

Loss of weight: Due to unexplained reasons.

Sweats: The clothes and bed get wet because of sweating during nights and day time also.

Itching: Without any reason itching starts, can be even in summer.

Some symptoms affect the whole body like chest, abdomen, skin, brain, nerves, swelling of arms and legs, and anaemia is also a symptom. Always better to consult the doctor immediately if a patient experiences any of these symptoms. If the doctor suspects lymphoma, a few tests and scans are done.

Risk Factors of Lymphoma:

A) AGE AND SEX:

1) As a person ages, there are chances of getting lymphoma.

2) Some lymphomas affect men and some women. Not common in women of childbearing age.

B) FAMILY HISTORY:

1) Lymphoma is not inherited

2) Still chances of getting lymphoma is higher if a parent, child, or sibling has had lymphoma.

3) These cells are often in the immune system.

4) Lifestyle is also a risk factor.

C) IMMUNE SYSTEMS PROBLEMS:

1) Immune system protects the body from infections and helps the body to get rid of damaged cells.

2) Some medical conditions when we take some drugs or some disorders can cause problems to our immune system, and lymphocytes grow out of control and cause lymphoma.

3) Drugs taken during stem cell transplant dampen the immune system.

D)HIV AND LYMPHOMA:

  1. HIV-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infection increases the risk of getting lymphoma.
  2. People with HIV cannot fight with infections, so Lymphoma is affected. 

E) INFECTIONS:

1) Lymphoma by itself is not infectious that can be passed on to someone.

2) Sometimes, lymphoma cells have viruses.

3) Some viruses and bacteria can cause lymphoma.

Causes of Lymphoma:

  1. There are many types of lymphoma, and some are rare, and certain causes are not authentic.
  2. Processed meats and wireless or mobile phones signals can cause lymphoma, but little evidence is available that this causes lymphoma.
  3. Inflammation continues for a long time; then, this causes lymphoma.
  4. Industrial Chemicals, pesticides, hair dyes used earlier than now.
  5. Some farmworkers are prone to this disease as certain pesticides, chemicals and viruses can spread from animals.
  6. A breast implant also causes lymphoma.
  7. LIFESTYLE- Smokers, people who consume red meat, animal fat, dairy products,

   also, people who don’t exercise regularly and obese people can get lymphoma.

Food Good for Lymphoma:

  • Low sugar fruits
  • Ground flaxseeds.
  • Chia seeds.
  • Avocados.
  • Garlic.
  • Almonds.

Treatment Options for Lymphoma

Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, Immunotherapy or a combination of all to treat lymphoma.

1) CAR-T CELL THERAPY:- In this therapy, the patient’s cells are used to treat the disease. T- cells are removed from patients and modified into CARs. These CAR-T cells are grown in a laboratory and sent back into the patient. In this, the blood is removed through IV, and T cells are separated from other blood cells. Then rest of the blood is sent back into the body.

The CAR-T cells are also frozen, and a few days after chemo CAR-T cells are infused in the body.

2) CHEMOTHERAPY: The chemotherapy gives the CAR-T cells to grow and fight the lymphoma.

Once the CAR-T cells enter the body, they multiply and attack the lymphoma cells. The treating doctor keeps a close observation for side effects.

3) RADIATION THERAPY: High-energy x-rays are used to kill cancer cells and to shrink its size.

Radiation is given only to the affected area, the lymph nodes and its surrounding lymph nodes.

Usually, the total dose of radiation is given over one to six weeks.

  1. IMMUNOTHERAPY: This treatment is for the immune system. When a person has this disease, the immune system does not work correctly. Immunotherapy drugs are used to cure lymphoma. In immunotherapy, the immune system targets the lymphoma cells.
  2. ORAL THERAPY: This treatment is through drugs, taken by mouth-liquid or tablet or capsule form. The patient is happy because he can take it at home. But in this treatment, the patient should be connected with the health care team, watch for side effects and if the medicine is being taken regularly or not.

Generally, treatment when treated on time, it is highly effective most of the people are cured.  

Awareness of Lymphoma:

Lymphoma is the fifth most frequent cancer in the world, but little is known about it. People know about breast, lung cancers but not lymphoma as cancer. Though some of them knew about lymphoma, in-depth knowledge is less. So there is a need for campaigns at different places to increase the knowledge and awareness about LYMPHOMA.